Prior to a 1985 competition, celebrated Spanish hurdler Martínez Patiño was forced to undergo gender testing. Despite passing previous sex-determination tests and receiving a Certificate of Femininity, Martínez Patiño's results revealed she had androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and a Y chromosome. Martínez Patiño was ruled ineligible for future competitions, including the 1988 Olympics, and lost several athletic scholarships. She was reinstated two and a half years later by the International Amateur Athletics Federation. Retired from the sport, Martinez-Patino received her PhD and is now a university professor.